DOG1, also known as Discovered on GIST-1, is a marker that highly specific for gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Anti-DOG1 is extremely sensitive for the detection of GIST and its diagnosis. Although some GIST stain weakly for c-kit, DOG1 is expressed in the vast majority of GIST cases. Reports have also indicated DOG1 as a marker for salivary acinar and intercalated duct differentiation.
Ki-67 is a nuclear, non-histone protein that is expressed only during active phases of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2 and M), but not in the resting phases (G0 and G1 early phase). Although the antigen has also been associated with ribosomal RNA transcription, it is strongly linked to cell proliferation and has thus been indicated as an effective marker in grading the proliferation rate of tumors, including those of the brain, breast, cervix, and prostate.
LMO2, also known as LIM-Only transcription factor 2, RBTN2, or TTG2, is an oncoprotein that is expressed in normal germinal center B-cells, as well as bone marrow hematopoietic precursors and endothelial cells. LMO2 plays a role in angiogenesis and hematopoesis, and its expression has been detected in erythroid and myeloid precursors, megakaryocytes, and also in lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukemias. LMO2 protein expression has been noted in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, the most common adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma, as well as follicular lymphoma, a neoplasm derived from germinal center B-cells that accounts for a number of cases of non-Hodgkin lymphomas.
Anti-Kappa recognizes surface immunoglobulin on normal and neoplastic B-cells, and has been indicated as a potential aid in the identification of leukemias, plasmacytomas, and certain non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, where the expression of a single light chain class is restricted. The determination of light chain ratio is critical in evaluating B-cell neoplasms, as the majority of B-cell lymphomas express either kappa or lambda light chains, while a mixture of kappa and lambda is characteristic of reactive proliferations. In paraffin-embedded tissue, Anti-Kappa displays strong staining of kappa-positive plasma cells, as well as cells that have absorbed exogenous immunoglobulins.
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