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Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a membrane protein that plays a role in innate and adaptive immunity by controlling the biosynthesis of inflammation, prostaglandins, and leukotriene mediators. This target is overexpressed in 97% of all samples from patients with with hairy cell leukemia, and is absent in other B-cell lymphomas. High ANXA1 expression is frequently associated with advanced stage esophageal and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma, and is also linked to advanced and metastatic disease states.
Cytokeratin 18 (CK18) is present in simple, glandular, and transitional epithelial cells, but is absent in stratified epithelial cells. CK18 usually multimerizes with Cytokeratin 8, and Anti-Cytokeratin 18 is useful for detecting adenocarcinomas of simple and glandular epithelium origin, as well as poorly differentiated squamous carcinoma cells.
E-cadherin is an intercellular adhesion molecule present in epithelial cells. Anti-E-cadherin stains glandular epithelium, as well as lung, gastrointestinal and ovarian adenocarcinomas. A panel of antibodies against E-cadherin and p120 is also used to differentiate ductal (membranous staining) and lobular breast cancer (cytoplasmic staining). Anti-E-cadherin also stains some thyroid cancers.
GATA3 is a transcription factor important in cell proliferation, development, and differentiation. GATA3 is mostly observed in breast and urothelial carcinomas, and rarely present in other cancers such as endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Among the breast carcinomas, GATA3 has a lower expression in luminal B subtype breast carcinoma. Studies have found GATA3 expression to be associated with ER (estrogen receptor), PR (progesterone receptor), and Her2 in breast cancer cases. Urothelial carcinomas stain positively for GATA3 in invasive or high grade tumors, therefore Anti-GATA3 is useful for carcinoma diagnosis when breast and bladder are plausible.
The Her2/Neu (c-erbB-2) proto-oncogene is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that is clinically indicated in a number of carcinomas. Overexpression of the c-erbB-2 protein has been associated with ductal breast cancer, as well as pulmonary and gastric adenocarcinomas. A correlation between Her2 and p53 has also been documented, as overexpression of both proteins has been associated with early invasion and metastasis in bladder cancer.
Ki-67 is a nuclear, non-histone protein that is expressed only during active phases of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2 and M), but not in the resting phases (G0 and G1 early phase). Although the antigen has also been associated with ribosomal RNA transcription, it is strongly linked to cell proliferation and has thus been indicated as an effective marker in grading the proliferation rate of tumors, including those of the brain, breast, cervix, and prostate.
PAX-8 is a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors, which are key regulators in early development. This protein plays a role in development of thyroid follicular cells and the expression of thyroid-specific genes, with mutations in the PAX-8 gene linked to thyroid follicular carcinomas, atypical thyroid adenomas, and thyroid dysgenesis. The PAX-8 protein is expressed in simple ovarian inclusion cysts and non-ciliated mucosal cells of the fallopian tubes, but is absent from normal ovarian surface epithelial cells. PAX-8 is also not expressed in normal lung or lung carcinomas. Reports have associated PAX-8 expression with renal carcinoma, nephroblastoma, and seminoma, and have indicated PAX-8 as a useful marker for renal epithelial tumors, ovarian cancer, and for differential diagnoses in lung and neck tumors. Anti-PAX-8 can be useful in determining the primary site of invasive micropapillary carcinomas of ovary from bladder, lung, and breast, when used in adjunct with a panel of organ-specific markers such as uroplakin, mammaglobin, and TTF-1.
Vimentin is a component of intermediate filament in mesenchymal cells, such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and melanocytes. Anti-Vimentin is useful for assessing whether tissue samples have been processed and preserved properly. A panel of Anti-Vimentin and Anti-Keratin is useful for differentiating melanomas from large cell lymphomas and undifferentiated carcinomas. This diagnostic grade Vimentin IVD antibody stains melanomas and schwannomas, as well as Endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinomas.