Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) is a single-stranded DNA virus known to infect penaeid shrimps. Of the penaeid shrimp viruses, it is by far the smallest with a length of 22nm. IHHNV causes widespread mortality, as high as 90%, in the Western Blue Shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris) and the chronic disease runt-deformity syndrome (RDS) in the Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). RDS is characterized by reduced, irregular growth and cuticular deformities rather than death. Transmissioncanoccurhorizontallyeitherbycannibalismorexposuretocontaminatedwater, or vertically through infected eggs that will either fail to develop or turn into nauplii that are highly infectious. The virus occurs worldwide and symptoms include reduced appetite, cannibalism, and changesinswimmingbehaviour.Thevirusisalsonoticeablebythehighmortalityratesinthe Western Blue Shrimp. No effective vaccination methods for IHHNV have been developed, however, some aquatic farmers have been able to develop colonies of shrimp that are IHHNV resistant. This technique is not yet standard practice and therefore, quick and accurate detection using real-time PCR is important in controlling the spread of IHHNV.