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Thymidylate Synthase (TS) is a crucial enzyme responsible for the synthesis of 2′-deoxythymidine-5′-monophosphate (dTMP) a precursor for thymidylate which is necessary for DNA replication and repair from 2′-deoxyuridine-5′-monophosphate (dUMP). In terms of cancer, TS is an important target for cancer treatment as the inhibition of TS and therefore nucleotide synthesis necessary for cell growth has shown to be a vital part for successful treatment against colorectal, pancreatic and breast cancers.
Thyroglobulin is a precursor to the thyroid hormones T4 and T3 and is present in the thyroid follicular cells. Nearly all thyroid follicular carcinomas stain for thyroglobulin and sometimes produce a focal staining pattern. Conversely, poorly differentiated carcinomas and non-thyroid adenocarcinomas do not stain for thyroglobulin, therefore this Thyroglobulin IVD antibody is a useful diagnostic tool for recognizing papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas. A panel of Anti-Thyroglobulin and Anti-Calcitonin is useful for identifying medullary thyroid carcinomas, whereas a panel of Anti-Thyroglobulin and Anti-TTF1 is useful for distinguishing between primary thyroid and lung neoplasms.
T-cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin-Domain-Containing Molecule-3 (TIM3) is present on T-helper type 1 lymphocytes and other immune cells including dendritic cells and natural killer cells. TIM3 is overexpressed in CD4 tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, including those with non-small cell lung cancer associated with poor prognoses. TIM3 has recently emerged as a potential target for cancer immunotherapy.
Thyroid Transcription Factor 1 (TTF-1) is present in diencephalon, lung, and thyroid. Anti-TTF-1 stains thyroid and thyroid-derived tumors, and is therefore used for distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma from germ cell tumors, malignant mesothelioma, and metastatic carcinomas from organs other than the thyroid. It is also useful for distinguishing small cell lung carcinoma from lymphoid infiltrates, and pulmonary from non-pulmonary adenocarcinomas in malignant effusions. The ability to distinguish between pulmonary and non-pulmonary adenocarcinomas is particularly useful in identifying tumors that have metastasized to the brain.
Vimentin is a component of intermediate filament in mesenchymal cells, such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and melanocytes. Anti-Vimentin is useful for assessing whether tissue samples have been processed and preserved properly. A panel of Anti-Vimentin and Anti-Keratin is useful for differentiating melanomas from large cell lymphomas and undifferentiated carcinomas. This diagnostic grade Vimentin IVD antibody stains melanomas and schwannomas, as well as Endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinomas.