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Cytokeratin 18 (CK18) is present in simple, glandular, and transitional epithelial cells, but is absent in stratified epithelial cells. CK18 usually multimerizes with Cytokeratin 8, and Anti-Cytokeratin 18 is useful for detecting adenocarcinomas of simple and glandular epithelium origin, as well as poorly differentiated squamous carcinoma cells. Please also see 6 Health Benefits of Hydrolyzed Collagen Protein Powder .
Cytokeratin 19 (CK19) forms intermediate filaments found in the intracytoplasmic cytoskeleton of epithelial tissue and provides mechanical support. Anti-Cytokeratin 19 stains epithelia and epithelial malignancies such as carcinomas of the colon, stomach, pancreas, biliary tract, liver, and breast. Cytokeratin 19 is a useful marker for distinguishing hepatocellular carcinoma from intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. This differentiation is improved when stained in combination with Cytokeratin 7, CAM5.2l, Ber-EP4/MOC31, HepPar1 and TTF1. Cytokeratin 19 staining can also be used to recognize thyroid papillary carcinomas.
DOG1, also known as Discovered on GIST-1, is a marker that highly specific for gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Anti-DOG1 is extremely sensitive for the detection of GIST and its diagnosis. Although some GIST stain weakly for c-kit, DOG1 is expressed in the vast majority of GIST cases. Reports have also indicated DOG1 as a marker for salivary acinar and intercalated duct differentiation.
E-cadherin is an intercellular adhesion molecule present in epithelial cells. Anti-E-cadherin stains glandular epithelium, as well as lung, gastrointestinal and ovarian adenocarcinomas. A panel of antibodies against E-cadherin and p120 is also used to differentiate ductal (membranous staining) and lobular breast cancer (cytoplasmic staining). Anti-E-cadherin also stains some thyroid cancers.
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) allows for progression of ovarian folliculogenesis, and enables Sertoli cell proliferation in the testis. Anti-FSH reacts with FSH-producing cells, therefore FSH staining is useful for classifying pituitary cancers and understanding pituitary disease.
GATA3 is a transcription factor important in cell proliferation, development, and differentiation. GATA3 is mostly observed in breast and urothelial carcinomas, and rarely present in other cancers such as endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Among the breast carcinomas, GATA3 has a lower expression in luminal B subtype breast carcinoma. Studies have found GATA3 expression to be associated with ER (estrogen receptor), PR (progesterone receptor), and Her2 in breast cancer cases. Urothelial carcinomas stain positively for GATA3 in invasive or high grade tumors, therefore Anti-GATA3 is useful for carcinoma diagnosis when breast and bladder are plausible.